Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and other nutrient reference values. The new title for these values Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), is the inclusive name being given to this new approach. These are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. This new book is part of a series of books presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients. It establishes recommendations for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. This book presents new approaches and findings which include the following: the establishment of Estimated Energy Requirements at four levels of energy expenditure; recommendations for levels of physical activity to decrease risk of chronic disease; the establishment of RDAs for dietary carbohydrate and protein; the development of the definitions of Dietary Fiber, Functional Fiber, and Total Fiber; the establishment of Adequate Intakes (AI) for Total Fiber; the establishment of AIs for linolenic and a-linolenic acids; acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges as a percent of energy intake for fat, carbohydrate, linolenic and a-linolenic acids, and protein; and research recommendations for information needed to advance understanding of macronutrient requirements and the adverse effects associated with intake of higher amounts. Also detailed are recommendations for both physical activity and energy expenditure to maintain health and decrease the risk of disease.