This book presents a comprehensive study of the environmental situation prevailing in the areas located near the Koshkar-Ata (Kazakhstan) tailings dump and the development of rehabilitation measures taking into account the area's soil and climatic features. Given their impact on the local population's health, rehabilitation activities and their monitoring are vital for countries where nuclear power technologies are developed and where uranium mining industry wastes exist. Book analyzes the negative influences of the tailings on soil and vegetation cover on near-ground atmospheric layers and groundwater. Based on radiometric, field and laboratory analytical research methods, it presents quantitative information on the levels of pollution of the environment by radionuclides and chemical toxicants, and includes the results of constant monitoring of dust from radioactive and toxic wastes in the area. The book also offers recommendations for technical solutions for reclaiming radioactive tailing ponds, as well as for the development of disposal sites for radioactive waste in the tailing ponds, based on effective rehabilitation technologies developed at two control sites. The study attracted considerable interest from the Republic of Kazakhstan's state authorities and public organizations, and raised awareness of the need for rehabilitation measures at the KOSHKAR-ATA tailing pond. The monograph is intended for specialists in the field of environmental protection and radiation ecology, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students, doctoral students and young scientists. This publication is recommended by the Academic Council of the L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University.