was born in England in 1737 and worked as a schoolteacher, storekeeper, and customs inspector before moving to Philadelphia in 1774. He quickly acquired a reputation as a journalist and published his hugely successful and influential pamphlet
, written when Paine was a soldier in the darkest days of the revolution—with its famous opening words, “These are the times that try men’s souls”—called for perseverance and prevented Washington’s army from disintegrating. To honor him for defending the French Revolution in
Rights of Man
, France made him a citizen and elected him to their constitutional convention. He died in 1809.