This book reviews and critically analyzes the current legal framework with regard to a more just culture for the aviation sector. This new culture is intended to protect front-line operators, in particular controllers and pilots, from legal action (except in the case of willful misconduct or gross negligence) by creating suitable laws, regulations and standards. In this regard, it is essential to have an environment in which all incidents are reported, moving away from fears of criminalization. The approach taken until now has been to seek out human errors and identify the individuals responsible. This punitive approach does not solve the problem because frequently the system itself is (also) at fault. Introducing the framework of a just culture could ensure balanced accountability for both individuals and complex organizations responsible for improving safety. Both aviation safety and justice administration would benefit from this carefully established equilibrium.