This book presents an exploration of factors which have historically contributed to Aboriginal marginalisation in Australian society.. Colonialism and associated dispossession are identified as the main contributors to historical and contemporary marginalisation of Aboriginal people in Australia. Inherent in colonialism were scientific racism, institutional racism, structural violence and cultural violence. These remain embedded in the fabric of Australian society and continue to influence not only the daily lives, but also the long term life chances of Aboriginal people. The impact of these factors on Aboriginal participation in policy formulation and education is examined within a critical theory framework. Cultural Safety, a concept developed in New Zealand in relation to health service delivery, offers a different approach to improving service delivery to Aboriginal Australians. The practice of Cultural Safety can reduce the power imbalances created by colonialism and its application to Aboriginal education is a major focus of this portfolio.