This publication provides doctrinal guidance for planning and executing barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare for joint operations as they relate to strategic, operational, and tactical mobility and countermobility across the range of military operations. Joint forces should be prepared to encounter barriers, obstacles (including improvised explosive devices [IEDs], mines, and other unexploded explosive ordnance [UXO]) and to conduct mine warfare (MW), employing mines on land and sea across the range of military operations. Employing and countering obstacles differ on land and at sea. Employing and countering obstacles impacts (or is impacted by) all six of the joint functions. Command and control (C2) is critical to ensure that obstacle employment supports the concept of operations (CONOPS), does not violate law or policy, and avoids unintended consequences. Intelligence must provide joint forces with as much understanding as possible about obstacles – and about adversaries’ capabilities to employ them. The political, social, cultural, and economic environments are critical elements in understanding the operational environment in which obstacles will be used. Joint forces can use obstacles to enhance the effectiveness of fires by increasing target acquisition time, creating target-rich environments, and creating vulnerabilities to exploit. Obstacles can also degrade the ability of friendly forces to employ fires by limiting or denying access to areas needed to launch and recover aircraft or areas from which other weapon systems can employ fires. Obstacles can significantly inhibit the movement and maneuver of joint forces and threaten their fighting potential and sustainment. Joint forces must assure their mobility, conserve their fighting potential, and protect their ability to provide personnel, logistics, and other support. Joint forces can use obstacles to delay, channel, or stop the movement and maneuver of adversaries of for protection against an enemy’s assault or against unauthorized access to facilities and bases. This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in operations and provides the doctrinal basis for interagency coordination and for US military involvement in multinational operations. It provides military guidance for the exercise of authority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs) and prescribes joint doctrine for operations, education, and training. It provides military guidance for use by the Armed Forces in preparing their appropriate plans. It is not the intent of this publication to restrict the authority of the JFC from organizing the force and executing the mission in a manner the JFC deems most appropriate to ensure unity of effort in the accomplishment of the overall objective. Joint doctrine established in this publication applies to the Joint Staff, commanders of combatant commands, subunified commands, joint task forces, subordinate components of these commands, and the Services. The guidance in this publication is authoritative; as such, this doctrine will be followed except when, in the judgment of the commander, exceptional circumstances dictate otherwise. If conflicts arise between the contents of this publication and the contents of Service publications, this publication will take precedence unless the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, normally in coordination with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has provided more current and specific guidance. Commanders of forces operating as part of a multinational (alliance or coalition) military command should follow multinational doctrine and procedures ratified by the United States.