Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. In this book, the authors discuss the epidemiology, symptoms and treatment options of candidiasis. Topics include invasive candidiasis and candida parapsilosis complex diagnoses and treatment; conventional and alternative treatment options for oral candidiasis; candida spp. in the oral cavity of children with immunodeficiencies; oxidative stress and the development of antifungal agents for the treatment of candidiasis; inhalation and topical steroid therapy and oral candidiasis; and fluorescent staining for the diagnosis of oral erythematous candidiasis.