Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are general terms for a group of developmental disabilities that cause impairments in social skills and communication, and are often characterised by certain atypical behaviours. The federal government has a role in the financing (through Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Programs) and delivery of treatment for ASD. The number of autism cases and their appropriate diagnosis and treatment affect federal and state expenditures. As such, Congress has shown interest in financing research on ASD prevalence, causes, and optimal treatment for individuals with ASD. This book presents an overview of the Combating Autism Act and Combating Autism Reauthorization Act, the Department of Health and Human Services funding, other federal activities related to autism, and selected issues for Congress. It also describes the actions that HHS agencies have taken as a result of the CAA; examines the oversight of CAA grantees; analyses the extent to which federal agencies fund potentially duplicative autism research; and assesses the extent to which IACC and agencies co-ordinate and monitor federal autism activities.