Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. It is a synonym to biofuel, which is fuel derived from biological sources. In sum, bioenergy is the energy extracted from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy contained in the fuel. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, and many other by-products from a variety of agricultural processes. Bioenergy is expected to become one of the key energy resources for global sustainable development. The purpose of this publication is also to evaluate global bioenergy potential, production process and technological innovations required for making it cheap and affordable. This handbook tries to create an all-round understanding of bioenergy/biofuel and provides readers with an integrated perspective on the subject. Recent global trends in biofuel energy production, technologies used and extent of regional/national shares are analysed in detail. Types of food and non-food bioenergy crops are outlined in detail. Production processes and technologies used for biogas, biohydrogen and allied fuels are discussed. Siloxane, photohydrogen, biogasoline, butanol fuel, methanol fuel and alcohol fuel are elaborated upon briefly. The culture process and production technology involved in algal and other microbial fuel are also described in brief.