The Handbooks of Applied Linguistics series is based on an understanding of Applied Linguistics as an inter- and transdisciplinary field of academic enquiry. Combining theoretical epistemes with empirical insights and practitioners' expertise, Applied Linguistics identifies and analyses real-world problems in which language and communication are central issues. Based on the resulting knowledge, Applied Linguistics is in a strong position to contribute to sustainably solving such real-world problems. The Handbooks of Applied Linguistics provide a state-of-the-art description of established and emerging areas of Applied Linguistics. Each volume gives an overview of the field, explains most important traditions and their findings, identifies the gaps in current research, and discusses perspectives for future directions.