Thailand is one of the important countries which belong to new trading and logistics pattern in East Asia. In this circumstance, it is quite significant to identify the relationship between economic characteristics and structures of transportation and logistics industries. This study has 3 objectives. First is to identify the economic characteristic and structure of whole transportation from 1975 to 2000 by input-output analysis. Second is to identify the economic characteristics and structure of each mode of transportation sector by input-output analysis. Third is to estimate 2005 Input-output tables and evaluate the effect of modal shift to reduce energy consumption to accomplish sustainable development. Results obtained that load freight transport is one of the most cost effective transportation modes and many industries prefer to use. However, this tendency will have critical environmental impact in the near future. To prevent this, modal shift from truck to railways and water transport is considered one of the reasonable ways. Therefore, it is important for railways and water transport industries to improve their economic condition and reduce their transportation costs.