For sustainable management of forest vegetation in the area, geology, soil and biota are important factors. Scientific investigation may be helpful in improving and regenerating degraded hills by protection of slopes through raising vegetation suited to parent material and soil. Soils are considered to be our basic treasure. Man is dependent on soil and productive soil depends on man. Each of the different kinds of soils requires special management practice which changes from season to season. The knowledge of mineralogical behavior of soils at good natural sites and at degraded sites opens at possibilities of optimal management inputs to augment production of the biomass from good site as well as from degraded site after suitable amelioration. In the present intensified programme of raising large scale plantation, especially of fast growing species, the fertility potential depends largely on the mineralogical composition of the soil. The underlying parent material plays a vital role in determining the success or other-wise of the plantations especially over a number of rotations in a given year. This book provides in-depth knowledge to the managers, foresters and land users to have a thorough knowledge about the content and nature of minerals present in the soil in diagnosing the fertility status and other soil-plant-parent material relationship in forestry.