Londinium Architecture And The Crafts

Auteur: W.R. Lethaby
Taal: Engels
Londinium Architecture And The Crafts


LONDINIUM ARCHITECTURE AND THE CRAFTS BY W. R. LETHABY WITH 175 FIGURES NEW YORK D APPLETON AND COMPANY MCMXXIV CONTENTS CHAP. PAGB I. BUILDING MATERIALS AND METHODS . . 7 II. BUILDINGS AND STREETS . . . - 33 III. WALLS, GATES AND BRIDGE . . - 57 IV. CEMETERIES AND TOMBS . . . .84 V. SOME LARGER MONUMENTS . . . 101 VI. SCULPTURE . ., . .120 VII. THE MOSAICS ..... 142 VIII. WALL PAINTINGS AND MARBLE LININGS . .162 IX, LETTERING AND INSCRIPTIONS . . .176 X. THE CRAFTS ..... 193 XL EARLY CHRISTIAN LONDON . . .214 XII, THE ORIGIN OF LONDON . . . .228 INDEX ., .., 247 chapters were first printed, in The Builder during the year 1921. For that reason, and because the earlier records of Roman discoveries in London given in this Journal seemed to have been less worked over than other sources, a large number of references are given to its - pages. The account of Roman London in the Victoria County History C. Roach Smiths Illustrations of Roman London and Mr, T, Wards Roman Era in Britain and Roman British Buildings may be specially mentioned among the works consulted. The first named is cited as y. C. H. Mr. A. H. LyeWs Bibliographical List of Romano-British Remains 1912 is indispensable to the student. LONDINIUM CHAPTER I BUILDING MATERIALS AND METHODS IT is curious that Roman buildings and crafts in Britain have hardly been studied as part of the story of our national art. The subject has been neglected by architects and left aside for antiquaries. Yet when this story is fully written, it will appear how important it is as history, and how suggestive in the fields of practice. This provincial Roman art was, in fact, very different from the classical style of ordinary architectural treatises.M. Louis Gillet in the latest history of French art considers this phenomenon. It is very difficult to measure exactly the part of the Gauls in the works of the Roman epoch which cover the land, such, for instance, as the Maison Carree and the Mausoleum at St. Remy. There is in these chefs d uvre something not of Rome. The elements aroused with liberty and delicacy more like the work of the Renaissance than of Vitruvius. In three centuries. Gaul had become educated these Gallo-Roman works, like certain verses of Ausonius, show little of Rome, they are already French. We should hesitate to say just this in Britain, although the Brito-Roman arts were intimately allied 7 8 LONDINIUM to those of Gaul. In fuller truth and wider fact, they were closely related to the provincial Roman art as practised in Spain, North Africa, Syria, and Asia Minor. Alexandria was probably the chief centre from which the new experimenting spirit radiated. We may agree, however, that in the centuries of the Roman occupation, Britain like Gaul became educated and absorbed the foreign culture with some national difference. In attempt ing to give some account of Roman building and minor arts in London, I wish to bring out and deepen our sense of the antiquity and dignity of the City, so as to suggest an historical background against which we may see our modern ways and works in proper perspective and proportion. Tools, etc. Roman building methods were re markably like our own of a century ago. The large number of tools which have been found and brought together in our museums are one proof of this. We have adzes and axes, hammers, chisels and gouges, saws, drills and files also foot-rules, plumb bobs and a plane.The plane found at Silchester wa an instrument of precision the plumb-bob of bronze, from Wroxeter, in the British Museum, is quite a beautiful thing, and exactly like . one figured by Daremberg and Saglio under the word Perpendicularum. At the Guildhall are masons chisels and trowels the latter with long leaf shaped blades. At the British Museum is the model of a frame saw. Only last year 1922 many tools were found at Colchester. For the history of tools in antiquity, see Prof. Flinders Petries volume...
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W.R. Lethaby
Sanford Press



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