This interdisciplinary edited collection presents original analysis on Mexico's transition from the Millennium to the Sustainable Development Goals, departing from three main perspectives. In what areas did Mexico gain leverage and actually contribute to the debate around the proposed SDGs? What are the challenges for Mexico with regard to the SDGs? How to handle the issue of congruence/dissonance in Mexico's accomplishment of the MDGs in relation to the socioeconomic realities on the ground? The contributing authors examine what kind of state is needed to strengthen democratic politics and social justice, but also to improve the economic effectiveness of the state and thereby prospects for development. For Mexico, what is missing is a clear vision for creating a progressive, truly modern society where the notion of a social contract between the government and citizens could be established along the lines of a welfare state that is inclusive, sustainable, and transformative enough to tackle seriously the fundamental socioeconomic injustices dividing Mexicans.