The themes of migration and economic development are traditionally related. The debate over these issues has recently gained great relevance, particularly in Europe, as the phenomenon of migration tends to be seen as a possible conse quence (and cause) of political and environmental unrest. In this case, the im pacts of migration have not only to do with development but also with welfare, social norms and political stability. In recent months, the issues of xenophobia, of openness to refugees, of a rea sonable attitude towards international migration have come to the fore as a key to the future shape of Europe. The discussion is unfortunately couched in ex treme and irrational terms: social scientists may bear part of the responsibility for this, because for a very long time they devoted only minimal attention to the phenomenon of international migration, and we are still lacking a coherent view which will integrate international development with the freedom of movement of capital and labour and the preservation of the environment. Given the growing attention on the issue, the Conference organised by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei on 3-4 June 1991 at the Centro Studi Americani in Roma was extremely timely. In the light of 'new' migration phenomena, such as the migration wave into Germany from the East or into Italy from Albania, the Conference represented a unique opportunity to think of new policy measures to tackle migration.