Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and biochemical features that involves the active participation of affected cells in a self-destruction cascade. This programmed cell death plays a critical role in physiological functions such as cell deletion during embryonic development, balancing cell number in continuously renewing tissues and immune system development. Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. A number of studies have pointed out an association between consumption of fruits and vegetables, and certain beverages such as tea and wine, which are rich in polyphenols, with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals. The aim of this book is to provide new studies in the field of apoptosis research.