Part Two of Virendra Mahajan's Optical Imaging and Aberrations discusses methods for determining the characteristics of an object image formed by the diffraction of the object wave at the aperture stop or exit pupil of an aberrated imaging system. Numerical results of these effects are emphasized. The work describes diffraction theory of image formation of incoherent objects and examines both aberrated and aberration-free optical systems with circular, annular, and Gaussian pupils. Random aberrations are considered, including the effects of unpredictable image motion and propagation through atmospheric turbulence. As in Part One, each chapter ends with a set of problems that provide readers with practical examples.