This book addresses the challenges facing stable democratic states in dealing with oil companies in order to secure general welfare gains. Political stability means that such states should be able to take a longer term perspective. The principal topic considered is petroleum industry regulation but the insights extend to other non-renewable natural resources. A particular issue addressed is the question of tax competition between producing countries. Within the context of company/government relations the book considers such current topics as the challenges of dealing with merged companies and the strategic choices facing tax authorities.