Phytopathological And Botanical Research Methods

Taal: Engels
Phytopathological And Botanical Research Methods
  • Engels
  • Paperback
  • 9781406744996
  • Druk: illustrated edition
  • maart 2007
  • 164 pagina's
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PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL RESEARCH METHODS PHYTOPATIIOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL RESEARCH METHODS BY THOMAS ELSWORTH RAWLINS Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology, Um ersiiy oj Ca Berkeley, California NEW YORK JOHN WILEY SONS, INC. LONDON CHAPMAN HALL, LIMITED 1933 PREFACE In this book an attempt has been made to present methods which are of use to phytopathologists. Many of the methods are useful in other botanical sciences also. Before preparing the manuscript, considerable work was done to develop new experimental methods ana to improve technics described by other workers. The methods described are those which were found to be most satisfactory. An extensive bibliography has been included. Many of the papers cited describe technics which have not been used by phytopathologists but which appear to be applicable in pathological work. g I am indebted to Professors R. E. Smith, M. W. Gardner, J. T. Barrett, and J. P. Bennett for reading portions of the manuscript and for suggesting improvements, and to Dr. William N. Takahashi, who prepared the illustrations and did part of the experimental work neces sary in developing some of the methods. T. E. RAWLINS. CONTENTS PART I CHAPTER PAGE I. CHOOSING AND PLANNING A RESEARCH PROJECT . .... 1 PART II EXPERIMENTAL METHODS II. MICROSCOPIC METHODS 7 Free-hand Sections .... .... . . 7 Use of the Hand Microtome . . . .8 The Sliding Microtome .... .9 Mounting Unstained Mycelium or Sections . .9 Staining Unfixed Sections and Unfixed Superficial Mycelium . 10 Fixation 11 Staining Fixed Free-hand Sections .15 Staining Parasites in Unsectioned Tissues . . .19 Paraffin Method 19 Fixation 19 Washing 19 Dehydration 20 Infiltration with a Paraffin Solventanil with Paraffin . . 21 Imbedding 21 Complete Schedules for Paraffin Method ... 22 Sharpening the Microtome Knife ... 23 Adjusting Knife in Microtome . . ... 24 Attaching Paraffin Block to Holder 24 Cutting Sections ... 24 Attaching Sections to Slide ... 25 Preparing Sections for Staining ... .... 26 Bleaching 26 Staining 26 Iron Alum-HematoxyJin Schedule 27 Schedule for Triple Stain 28 Stains for Differentiating Host and Parasite 29 Viii CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Cotton Blue Method for Delicate Material 29 Staining Mycelium or Germinating Spores 30 Burris Method for Demonstrating Small Organisms .... 31 Theory of Staining 32 Microchemistry 34 Identification of Crystals 34 Identification of Non-crystalline Plant Constituents . . 38 Cellulose 38 Non-pectic Hemicelluloses . 4t Pectic Substances 42 Lignin 45 Suberized Cell Walls 47 Cutin 48 Chitin 48 Callose 49 Starch 50 Glycogen 51 Gums 52 Wound Gum 53 Tannins 53 Sugars 51 Proteins 55 Fats 58 Preparing Solutions of Acids, Alkali, Alcohol, etc 58 Micrometry 59 Measuring Spores 61 The Darkfield Microscope 61 Photomicrography 62 Drawing 64 III. CULTURE METHODS 66 Cleaning Glassware 67 Preparation of Culture Media 67 Hydrogen Ion Concentration . 69 Sterilization 76 Agar Media 77 Plant Tissues 83 Liquid Media 83 Growth Stimulants 86 Isolation Methods 86 Storage of Cultures 91 CONTENTS ix CHAPTER PAGE Reviving Old Cultures 91 Germinating Spores 92 Inoculating Plants 93 IV. VIRUS STUDIES 96 Virus Extraction .... .... . . Inoculations 97 V. MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 99 Preserving Diseased Material for Museum Specimens . . 99 Temperature and Humidity Control . . . 99 Growing Plants Under Sterile Conditions . . . . 100 PART III VI.INTERPRETATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY 107 INDEX 149 PART I CHAPTER I CHOOSING AND PLANNING A RESEARCH PROJECT TENTATIVE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH PROJECT It is seldom, if ever, advisable to make a final choice of a research project until a thorough study has been made of related literature. On the other hand, it is necessary that a tentative selection of the project be made in order that the volume of related literature to be reviewed may be within practical limits...



illustrated edition
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164 pagina's
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Thomas Elsworth Rawlins
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