HIV/AIDS remain a threat to human population, with a devastating effect, making the culprit diseased with markedly reduced immunity. "If you are not infected with HIV, you are affected," so every one is involved. Although there have been prevention endeavours, the incidence of HIV infection is on the increase as HIV spreading thrives on secrecy; some individuals get infected with HIV and remains asymptomatic for more than 10 years, with no clinical observable signs of physical illness; gender, stigma and poverty also contribute to its widespread, and acting as hindrances to patients seeking early treatment. HIV is not a single disease, but it is a complex of disease conditions, each diagnosed, treated and managed independently. This book, therefore, provides a new metric of success for retroviral testing, quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures as required for HIV serological screening of the population, monitoring patients on ART and in treatment management of opportunistic infections. This book should be especially useful to policy health makers, other professionals in allied health fields, and any one who may be in need of knowing HIV infection management.