Our modern society's high dependence on fossil fuels is problematic because of climate change, energy security and depletion of finite energy resources. There is currently a strong demand to develop biofuels as a sustainable alternative. However, food and biofuel production may compete for the same crop land. Thus, the focus should be on "second generation" biofuels which are produced from non- food biomass. In this regard cultivation of seaweeds as an energy crop has a great potential. This book shows how bioethanol and biogas can be produced from brown seaweeds using fermentation and anaerobic degradation processes. The potential of large scale cultivation of macroalgae for biofuel production is discussed, and ideas for future research are presented. The book also has an epilogue where the transition away from fossil fuels is analysed using Ken Wilber's integral framework. This book is the definite reference for everybody interested in utilising seaweeds for bioenergy production.