This book attempts to lay down the foundation for a socially relevant approach to bioethics in Africa where poor health and material deprivation are rooted in social structures. The need to address the determinants of material deprivation goes hand in hand with the necessity for tackling the social roots of poor health. The approach used by the author of the book is multidisciplinary, analytical, and critical. The author uses Johan Galtung's approach to structural violence, Paul Farmer's appropriation of the concept in the world of biomedicine and public health, Amartya Sen's capability approach, the Christian option for the poor, Jean-Marc Ela's foundations for a theology that places the needs of the poor at the center of ecclesial thinking, and Meredith Minkler's approach to community organizing for health. This book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students interested in bioethics, theology, philosophy, and international health. The book aims to create a dialogue between epidemiologists, public health scholars, medical sociologists and anthropologists, public policymakers, philosophers, theologians, and scholars in African studies.