Prior to European arrival in New Zealand, fishing was a significant component of M?ori subsistence. The abundant fish stocks provided a rich and readily available resource, with methods of procuring fish based on careful observations of generations of fishers. Supplemented by shellfish and birds, the fish stocks were sufficient to provide adequate food supplies, except when seasonal periods of adverse weather prevented harvesting. M?ori fished efficiently and sustainably utilizing nets (some over a mile long), traps, pots, spears, and lures, as well as hooks made of wood, bone, shell or stone that were as effective as any modern steel hook. The surplus catch was prepared and stored for later consumption. In the late 1700s, European sealers and whalers traded with M?ori, often using metal tools as barter. The superiority of metal for working implements soon became apparent to M?ori, who rapidly discarded their traditional tools. By the late 19th century these tools were less evident; however, artefacts were being made by both M?ori and Europeans to meet the demand from tourists and collectors. Changes in M?ori lifestyles associated with the increasing availability of European agricultural cultivars and domestic animals, as well as urbanization, led to a decline in M?ori fishing activity. Another impact of colonization was the loss of indigenous knowledge (m?tauranga) surrounding fish-hook design and use. Present-day interpretation of traditional tools including the rotating M?ori fishhook design has influenced the custom of wearing hei matau (stylized fish-hooks) as personal adornment.