The current epidemic of diabetes, obesity and related disorders is a driving force in the development of new technologies. Technological advances offer great new opportunities for the treatment of these chronic diseases. This review presents an update of developments that promise to revolutionize the treatment of diabetes. It examines hospital and outpatient care, intensive insulin therapy, blood glucose monitoring and innovative steps towards the construction of an artificial pancreas. Providing a comprehensive overview on the latest advances, this volume of Frontiers in Diabetes will be of particular interest to all healthcare providers involved in the daily management of patients with diabetes or related diseases.