Originally published in 1983. This book concentrates on the psychological factors within immigrants and on the importance of these for relations with locals and for education. It argues that immigrants experience a state of estrangement from both their own societies and from the receiving society. The educational effects of this manifest themselves partly in poor achievement, partly in poor behaviour and in dropping out of society. These are seen as the results of a diminished self-worth, a feeling of being pre-programmed to failure, and of being outsiders. This study develops a psychological model of the state of affairs and of the desirable educational measures needed for coping with it - in educational planning, curriculum development, teacher training and so on. It presents guidelines or suggestions for areas and kinds of actions, not presentating specific materials or programmes. This book fosters development of insight and understanding among teachers, policy-makers, teacher trainers and immigrants themselves.