Titanium and its alloys are one of the important engineering materials that are becoming increasingly popular for aerospace and biomedical applications due to their wide range of desirable properties. However, these unique properties of titanium and its alloys are strongly affected by different parameters including: chemical composition, microstructure, manufacturing details and heat treatment history. On the other hand, there has been considerable interest in recent years in the development of advanced titanium alloys in nanostructured, ultrafine-grained, and/or amorphous structure to achieve high performance compared with their conventional coarse-grained counterparts. These new titanium alloys show incomparable plasticity with respect to the conventional titanium alloys. This book highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the formation, characteristics and application of titanium alloys.