The Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians contains strategies and recommendations from the Public Health Service-sponsored Clinical Practice Guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. The guideline was designed to assist clinicians; smoking cessation specialists; and healthcare administrators, insurers, and purchasers in identifying and assessing tobacco users and in delivering effective tobacco dependence interventions. It was based on an exhaustive systematic review and analysis of the extant scientific literature from 1975–2007 and uses the results of more than 50 meta-analyses. The Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians summarizes the guideline strategies for providing appropriate treatments for every patient. Effective treatments for tobacco dependence now exist, and every patient should receive at least minimal treatment every time he or she visits a clinician. The first step in the process—identification and assessment of tobacco use status—separates patients into three treatment categories: (1) tobacco users who are willing to quit should receive intervention to help in their quit attempt; (2) those who are unwilling to quit now should receive interventions to increase their motivation to quit; and (3) those who recently quit using tobacco should be provided relapse prevention treatment. Tobacco is the single greatest cause of disease and premature death in America today, and is responsible for more than 435,000 deaths annually. About 20 percent of adult Americans currently smoke, and 4,000 children and adolescents smoke their first cigarette each day. The societal costs of tobacco related death and disease approach $96 billion annually in medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity. However, more than 70 percent of all current smokers have expressed a desire to stop smoking; if they successfully quit, the result will be both immediate and long-term health improvements. Clinicians have a vital role to play in helping smokers quit. The analyses contained within the Clinical Practice Guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update demonstrated that efficacious treatments for tobacco users exist and should become a part of standard care giving. Research also shows that delivering such treatments is cost-effective. In summary, the treatment of tobacco use and dependence presents the best and most cost-effective opportunity for clinicians to improve the lives of millions of Americans nationwide.