The term 'Biotechnology' is used to cover the use of living things in industry, technology, medicine or agriculture. It is used in the production of foods and medicines, the removal of wastes and the creation of renewable energy sources. Environmental biotechnology is the use of living organisms or biological processes in a wide variety of applications across many industries. The environmental biotechnologists and engineers provide expertise in microbial ecology and environmental engineering. They are generally supported by the environmental remediation technology. They focus on research in real-time direct environmental assessment and biological treatment, bioremediation, natural attenuation and other areas, such as, hydroecological engineering; molecular microbial ecology; environment and ecosystem processes; environmental resources; environmental perturbation; global environmental problems; structural and functional dynamics of microbial life, environmental biotechnology and engineering; air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; soil waste and soil pollution management, radiation pollution control; and, biopollution or bioinvasion. They also focus on: hazardous materials/hazardous wastes; environmental pollution prevention using bioindicators and biological markers; biosorption of metals; green technology, biofertilisers and biopesticides; composting; vermicompost and phoshocompost; green technology and phytoremediation, green technology and xenobiotics; green technology, biosensors, biochips and biosurfactents, bio-polymers and bio-plastics; bioleaching and biomining; biomethanation; biofuel and biodiesel; sewage treatment; role of information technology in environment and human health; and, environmental bio-nanotechnology and a case study of status environmental biotechnology in Australia. This publication manages to address most of the prominent issues related to environmental biotechnology in contemporary world. It provides readers with a complete overview of the said subject with a completely new perspective. This book serves the purpose of an up-to-date reference book on the said subject of environmental biotechnology. The book will be helpful to students, scholars, doctoral candidates, policy analysts, NGO practitioners, etc. interested in the biotechnology studies. This publication provides unique resources for understanding the many areas of environmental biotechnology.