Sonography is a noninvasive diagnostic method that has gained an established place in many branches of medicine. Although the inability of ultrasound to penetrate bone delayed its application in the orthopedic field, the successful work of R. Graf in the early detection of pediatric hip disorders with ultra sound has served as an impetus for the increasing use of sonogra phy to detect and evaluate abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. It is certain that further advances in this modality will be forth coming, and that sonography will be applied to new lines of inves tigation in orthopedic diagnosis. In Arthrosonography the authors use concise text and copious illustrations to demonstrate the potential applications of articular ultrasound, its diagnostic capabilities, and technical aspects of the ultrasound examination. Potential pitfalls are also explained. This book is the logical outcome of the application of diagnos tic ultrasound in orthopedics and rheumatology. It covers all basic practical aspects of arthrosonography and will be a valued re source for those concerned with the evaluation of the musculo skeletal system. HANS RETTIG Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Piezoelectric Effect - The Basis of Modem Sonography . . . . . . 1 Ultrasound Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . 1 General Principles of Diagnostic Ultrasound 2 Landmarks for Arthrosonography 6 Artifacts ........ . 6 Reverberations . . . . . 7 Hyperbolic Artifacts . . 7 Acoustic Mirror Image . 8 Special Phenomena in Arthrosonography 8 "Wandering Echo" Phenomenon . .