This book looks at the problems and opportunities of a switchover of skills, equipment, and other resources from military purposes to civilian uses, with particular reference to recent events in Eastern Europe. In Part 1 the author surveys the extent of the military economy and suggests that its different components imply distinct adjustment needs. This is followed by a look at the principal approaches to the economic adjustment problem - i.e. diversification, spin-off and conversion. In Part 2 the adjustment experiences of the world's three leading military producers - China, the Soviet Union and the United States are examined, while in parts 3 and 4 the centrepiece of the study, the European military economies are analyzed. In country by country sections Part 4 profiles the adjustment discussion and experience in 14 East and West European countries. Part 5 contains a discussion of the broader policy framework required to make economic adjustment a successful undertaking. The annex is divided into three sections, the first part lists selected conversion initiatives in a number of European countries, the second provides an international address list of individuals and organizations involved in economic adjustment issues, while the third is a selected bibliography covering publications from each of the countries covered.