This book revealed that acyl derivatives of -boswellic acid provide evidence about the apoptotic nature and development of these novel compounds for anticancer therapeutics. Our findings may open up a new perspective in the construction of novel anticancer agents that will facilitate the development of these agents capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, particularly the leukemia. Thus, the work included in this book yielded substantial information to the growing knowledge of the cellular effects exerted by BAs on apoptosis with particular focus on leukemia cell types. Importantly, description of cellular effects, target identification for BAs was an intended aim of the investigations. In the course of this book, NF-kB and PARP were found as the targets for POBA and BOBA (derivatives of -BA), but certainly specific upstream target(s) important for cell proliferation signaling needs to be identified. Broad scientific interest for BAs and B. spec effects has grown within the recent years, as reflected by the increasing number of scientific studies, so exciting novel insights into molecular, cellular and clinical BA effects are likely to come up in the future."